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Daily Diary Reveals How Cannabis Use Affects People With Bipolar

Rates of substance use are higher in people with mental health problems compared to the general population and particularly in people with bipolar disorder, with cannabis the street drug most frequently used. Estimates suggest that up to 64% of this group have tried cannabis at least once in their lives, against about 30% of those without the disorder, despite only being about 2% of the overall population.

Specific reasons for the high levels of cannabis use in bipolar disorder are not yet fully understood. Retrospective studies (using case histories and qualitative interviews) suggest that individuals see cannabis as sometimes useful for managing symptoms of mania and depression. However, a number of large scale research studies have found that cannabis use is associated with significantly more manic and depressive episodes.


The Daily Experience

A study we published in PLOS ONE is the first to explore the use of cannabis in bipolar disorder in daily life.

We used experience sampling methodology (ESM) which allowed us go beyond traditional assessments of mental health experiences which rely on using retrospective data, and which may be open to recall bias, where participants are asked to report on symptoms or substance use that has occurred in the past and where there can be differences between what occurred and the accuracy or completeness of the recollection.


Twenty-four participants completed a paper diary about their emotional state and drug use at ten random points daily over a period of week.

This enabled them to log their experiences in the moment before they forgot how they were feeling.

We found that the odds of using cannabis increased when individuals were in a positive mood. Cannabis use was associated with a subsequent increase in positive mood and an increase in both manic and depressive symptoms.


The idea, then, that cannabis can be used to self-medicate symptoms of mania and depression was not revealed over the course of daily life. In fact, the study found that cannabis use may be further complicating their mood states.

We need to find out whether these relationships play out in the longer term as this may have an impact on the course of the disorder in a person’s life.


People often find it difficult to reduce their substance intake and in addition to our findings, participants reported that they found recording a diary a useful and reflective tool to monitor their mood and cannabis use.


Anecdotally, a number of participants reported that tracking patterns of mood and cannabis use led them to question their substance use and in some cases reduce intake.

It could well be an useful therapeutic tool, particularly with clients who are ambivalent about changing their drug use habits, providing insight into potentially unhelpful patterns of behaviour.

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Further evidence that cannabis reduces tumor growth in new study


Zanimivo branje:

Medical marijuana as the new herbalism, part 3: A “cannabis cures cancer” testimonial





Cannabis versus breast cancer

As much as I admire the grace and determination with which Stefanie LaRue has endured over 9 years after her cancer diagnosis, as a cancer doctor it bothers me profoundly that she has allowed herself to fall under the spell of the “cannabis cures cancer” alternative medicine crowd, in particular Rick Simpson. I discussed Simpson the last time I wrote about cannabis and cancer. As I said at the time, Rick Simpson is just like cancer quacks the world over, who have no firm evidence to back up their miraculous-sounding cure rates and excuse their failures by blaming the treatment patients had before they started the quackery. Quacks like Rick Simpson do those who think that cannabinoids have promise in treating cancer no favors.

I also discussed how the vast majority of studies touted by the “cannabis cures cancer” advocates tend to be preclinical studies in cell culture or animal models that show relatively modest antitumor effects due to various cannabinoids. Indeed, this article on Medical Jane, “Studies Show Cannabinoids May Help Fight Triple-Negative Breast Cancer“, fails to provide particularly convincing evidence that they do. Before I look at the studies, I can’t help but note that triple negative breast cancer is breast cancer that makes neither the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), nor overexpressed HER2. Yet the article invokes Stefanie LaRue, who clearly has ER(+) breast cancer.


Another thing that needs to be pointed out. Every single one of the studies invoked by Medical Jane has nothing to do with hemp oil, be it Rick Simpson’s hemp oil or some other type. Each of the studies examines either purified cannabinoids or, in the case of this study, a chemically modified cannabinoid. This study cited in Molecular Cancer, for instance, looks Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the most abundant and potent cannabinoid in marijuana, and JWH-133, a non-psychotropic CB2 receptor-selective agonist. Both inhibit the growth of HER2(+) breast cancer cells in cell culture and in mice, but the concentrations needed are pretty high, with an IC50 (concentration that is 50% of maximum inhibition) in the range of 5 to 10 μM, concentrations achievable with injection of purified compound but certainly not by smoking pot


You are also unlikely to achieve these levels by drinking hemp oil, which, by the way, usually contains so little THC that it is below the limit of detection for common assays and manufacturers brag that it’s impossible to fail a drug test if you’re consuming hemp seed oil because “THC levels in our products are barely measurable.” Of course, I do realize that Rick Simpson calls his oil hemp oil even though it’s really cannabis oil derived from the buds rather than the seeds, but even he brags that “following the dosage previously described, many people can take the full treatment and never get high,” which implies that his oil achieves nowhere near the concentration of THC in the blood necessary to be active against cancer. Moreover, oral bioavailability of THC from such oils is notoriously low, between 4-20%, making it unlikely that concentrations well above the 10 μM necessary to inhibit or kill more than 50% of the cancer cells are achievable with oral dosing.

Thus, the various studies cited, such as this one, which shows inhibition of the epidermal growth factor pathway by purified cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid; this one, the aforementioned study that examines purified Δ9-THC and JWH-133 against HER2(+) breast cancer; and this one, which also examines CBD in breast cancer, are interesting and very preliminary. Moreover, they all examine cannabinoids purified from cannabis, and one even examines a chemically modified cannabinoid. In other words, even if cannabinoids make the jump from preclinical models to humans, these studies do not support the use of medical marijuana, either smoked as the plant or ingested as an oil, to treat breast cancer. They also do not suggest sufficient activity to produce miracle cures of stage IV cancer as described by Rick Simpson. Indeed, a recent review concludes that “current preclinical data does not yet provide robust evidence that systemically administered Δ9-THC will be useful for the curative treatment of cancer,” although CBD might have a role based on preclinical data.

Neither cannabinoid, however, is likely to be curative for advanced cancer. It’s possible that specific cannabinoids might have a role to play in the multimodality treatment of cancer, but, given what we know about them from preclinical studies, it’s highly unlikely that cannabinoids, medical marijuana, or Rick Simpson’s hemp oil can cure stage IV cancer of any kind.


Edited by drogfart
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No link found between psychedelics and psychosis


Anecdotal evidence of 'acid casualties' — people who develop chronic mental-health disorders following the use of psychedelic drugs — is not supported by data on large populations, researchers say.


Psychedelics not linked to mental health problems or suicidal behavior: A population study



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Death Following Recreational Use of Designer Drug “Bath Salts” Containing 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)


Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.


Review: 23 patients with laboratory-confirmed MDPV exposure

The authors extracted a boatload of data from these cases (something that’s easy to do using a computerized registry database). Much of what they found is not surprising: most patients were young males, the most common findings were tachycardia and agitation, the patient who died presented with severe hyperthermia (> 104oF).

For the rest, very little is generalizable because factors such as referral bias, selection bias, co-ingestants, and the relatively small number of cases. Probably the most interesting finding is that, contrary to expectations, none of the patients had seizure activity.

Edited by drogfart
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Extended-Release Mixed Amphetamine Salts for Comorbid Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Cocaine Use Disorder


Conclusions and Relevance

Extended-release mixed amphetamine salts in robust doses along with cognitive behavioral therapy are effective for treatment of co-occurring ADHD and cocaine use disorder, both improving ADHD symptoms and reducing cocaine use.

The data suggest the importance of screening and treatment of ADHD in adults presenting with cocaine use disorder.


In this trial, extended-release mixed amphetamine salts administered at robust doses along with CBT improved outcome in both ADHD symptoms and cocaine abstinence. As hypothesized, efficacy for CUD was dose related, with greatest abstinence for the group with the highest dosage (80 mg/d). While both 80 and 60 mg/d of extended-release mixed amphetamine salts compared with placebo produced substantial improvement in ADHD symptoms, the effect appeared somewhat greater at 60 mg. Consonant with the extensive ADHD literature and the smaller literature examining amphetamine analogues for stimulant dependence, the medication was well tolerated.




Nabor uporabe amfetamina v medicini se širi :)

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severe reactions to synthetic cannabinoid (M)AB-CHMINACA


That equates to 1,095 people located in three states traveling to the hospital after consuming a synthetic cannabinoid product in approximately one month

According to reports, patients often present with agitation, delirium, and hallucinations. Medical complications have included rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury, including that of a soldier at Fort Hood.


Is MAB-CHMINACA really to blame for these hospitalizations? Maybe. Maybe not.

Are there other compounds out there being consumed that may be contributing to these hospitalizations? As you can see from the structures presented above, yes, there are many other compounds out there at the moment. I wouldn't be surprised to hear that some other CHMINACA or FUBINACA compounds were also associated with these outbreaks.





Edited by drogfart
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Robin Carhart-Harris, ki smo ga imeli prejšni vikend čast poslušati na Sinapsini konferenci, je prvi človek po >40 letih z dovoljenjem, da legalno dela poskuse z LSD-jem na ljudeh. Testiranje poteka v kontroliranem okolju; udeleženci ležijo v prijetni sobi, 65mcg LSD, blindfold, klasična glasba in vrhunsko ozvočenje. Njegove raziskave še bolj pomembne, ker bo v primeru uspeha verjetno sledil razmah nadaljnih raziskav.




Pred tem je delal z MDMA-jem, še vedno pa s psilocibinom (bolniki s težjo obliko depresije, ki jim nobena druga zdravila niso pomagala; 25mg; večja konektivnost sicer manj povezanih možganskih sistemov).

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Medical marijuana offers only weedy health benefits


Don't expect marijuana to perform medical miracles. That's the message from a huge review of 79 clinical trials undertaken between 1975 and 2015 that assessed the merit of taking cannabinoids – the active component in cannabis – to treat different health conditions.

Over the last 20 years, Washington DC and 23 US states have introduced laws to allow the use of medical marijuana to treat many conditions, including long-term pain, sleep problems and muscle disorders.

Penny Whiting of the University of Bristol, UK, and her colleagues set out to examine the evidence that the drug is actually beneficial, but found little to suggest it is.


"Most trials reported greater improvement in symptoms with cannabinoids compared to control groups," says Whiting – but they didn't usually reach statistical significance.


Cannabinoids for Medical UseA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Conclusions and Relevance There was moderate-quality evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic pain and spasticity. There was low-quality evidence suggesting that cannabinoids were associated with improvements in nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, weight gain in HIV infection, sleep disorders, and Tourette syndrome. Cannabinoids were associated with an increased risk of short-term AEs.

Edited by drogfart
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Še ena izmed študij, ki potrjuje pozitivne učinke medicinske marihuane:


New Study Finds Marijuana To Be Effective Against Depression


Research has suggested that cannabis may be a promising treatment option for a number of different physical and mental health conditions, from post-traumatic stress disorder to chronic pain. A study released this week suggests that depression can be added to that list.


Neuroscientists from the University of Buffalo's Research Institute on Addictions found that endocannabinoids -- chemical compounds in the brain that activate the same receptors as THC, an active compound in marijuana -- may be helpful in treating depression that results from chronic stress.


In studies on rats, the researchers found that chronic stress reduced the production of endocannabinoids, which affect our cognition, emotion and behavior, and have been linked to reduced feelings of pain and anxiety, increases in appetite and overall feelings of well-being. The body naturally produces these compounds, which are similar to the chemicals in cannabis. Reduction of endocannabinoid production may be one reason that chronic stress is a major risk factor in the development of depression.

Then, the research team administered marijuana cannabinoids to the rats, finding it to be an effective way to restore endocannabinoid levels in their brains -- possibly, thereby, alleviating some symptoms of depression.


"Using compounds derived from cannabis -- marijuana -- to restore normal endocannabinoid function could potentially help stabilize moods and ease depression," lead researcher Dr. Samir Haj-Dahmane said in a university press release.




Pa še link do originalne študije: http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/44/14560.short

Edited by technolog
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Problem nepravilnega/netočnega označevanja vsebnosti kanabinoidov pri izdelkih iz marihuane namenjenih za oralno konzumacijo.



Cannabinoid Dose and Label Accuracy in Edible Medical Cannabis Products

Of 75 products purchased (47 different brands), 17% were accurately labeled, 23% were underlabeled, and 60% were overlabeled with respect to THC content (Table 1). The greatest likelihood of obtaining underlabeled products was in Los Angeles and overlabeled products in Seattle (χ2 = 12.94, P = .01).


Non-THC content was generally low (Table 2). Forty-four products (59%) had detectable levels of CBD; only 13 had CBD content labeled. Four products were underlabeled and 9 were overlabeled for CBD. The median THC:CBD ratio of products with detectable CBD was 36:1, 7 had ratios of less than 10:1, and only 1 had a 1:1 ratio.





The vast majority of edible cannabis products sold in a small sample of medical marijuana dispensaries carried labels that overstated or understated the amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a proof-of-concept study shows. Though the scope of the study was small, the researchers say, the results of the study suggest some medical cannabis patients could be unintentionally overdosing or are being cheated by mislabeled products.

Edited by drogfart
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Latest JAMA Studies Largely Fail To Support Past Claims About Marijuana And Brain Health

Two new studies published online today in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) Psychiatry provide little support for previous claims that cannabis exposure is significantly harmful to the developing brain.


The first study, which assessed the effects of cannabis exposure on brain volume in exposed and unexposed sibling pairs, reported that any identifiable differences “were attributable to common predispositional factors, genetic or environmental in origin.” By contrast, authors found “no evidence for the causal influence of cannabis exposure” on brain morphology.


The trial is “the largest study to date examining the association between cannabis exposure (ever versus never used) and brain volumes.”


The study is one of two recent clinical trials to be published in recent months rebutting the claims of a widely publicized 2014 paper which alleged that even casual marijuana exposure may be linked to brain abnormalities, particularly in the region of the brain known as the amygdala. In January, researchers writing in The Journal of Neuroscience reported “no statistically significant differences … between daily [marijuana] users and nonusers on [brain] volume or shape in the regions of interest” after researchers controlled for participants’ use of alcohol. Similarly, today’s JAMA study “casts considerable doubt on hypotheses that cannabis use … causes reductions in amygdala volumes.”


A second study appearing today in the journal assessed whether cannabis use during adolescence is associated with brain changes that may be linked to an increased risk of schizophrenia. While researchers reported finding an association among male subjects who possessed a high genetic predisposition toward schizophrenia, authors reported that no such association existed among male subjects who were at low risk for the disease, or among females in either the high risk or low risk categories. The finding is consistent with the theory that early onset cannabis use may potentially exacerbate symptoms in a minority of subjects predisposed to the disease, but it contradicts claims that marijuana exposure is a likely cause of schizophrenia, particularly among those who are not already vulnerable to the disease.







Edited by technolog
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potiho pričakovali kaj takega, sam vseen sm rahlo mindblown:


"When study participants on LSD reported experiencing their sense of self dissolve (what researchers called “ego dissolution”), a remarkable thing happened to their fMRI scans: The regions of the brain responsible for higher cognition lit up, suddenly becoming heavily “over-connected” with other networks in the brain that do not normally communicate with one another. The degree of connectivity correlated with the degree to which the person on LSD told the researchers they were feeling the borders between themselves and the rest of the world blur or fall away completely.



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