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Raziskave s področja dovoljenih in prepovedanih drog


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Všeč mi je, kar so nardil v Urugvaju. Situacijo spremljam in zelo me zanima, kako se bo tam obneslo oz. v kaj se bo razvilo.

Odgovorno uporabo trave regulira izobraževanje otrok in mladih v smislu ozaveščanja o negativnih in pozitivnih učinkih uživanja marihuane oz. kanabinoidov.

 

Vsekakor mora bit mladina meddrugim bolj osveščena, da v kolikor bodo postali redni uživalci marihuane, bodo imeli velike težave dobiti in ohraniti službo.

Ravnotako se morajo bolj zavedati, da pod vplivom THC ne smejo upravljati vozil.

 

V kolikor spremljam najstnike, le ti veliko premalo vedo o marihuani oz. o možnih negativnih zdravstvenih zapletih.

 

Prepoved ne zmanjšuje uporabe, kazni bi v SLO morale biti nižje.

 

Kako preregulirat marihuano v SLO je zelo kompleksna stvar in sam se še nisem spuščal v rešitve.

Vsekakor pa je meddrugim potrebno upoštevat SLO mentaliteto.

 

Primer je npr. alkohol.

Kljub izobraževanju o škodljivem vplivu alkohola, SLO kotira visoko glede na uporabo in alkohol predstavlja velik problem.

Zaradi pretirane uporabe alkohola imajo ljudje ogromno zdravstvenih težav, le te predstavljajo veliko obremenitev/strošek za zdravstveni sistem.

 

Ravno tako predstavlja pretirano kajenje marihuane, velik problem, predvsem pri mladih (najstniki)

 

Glede odziva bralcev na moje poste v tem topiku, mi je cilj, da to doseže mladino (najstnike) in ne 'stare prde'.

Stare prde so večinoma dale skoz rizično obdobje, ki npr. predstavlja psihiatrične bolezni.

Sigurno pa vsi sami vedo, da si s kajenjem iz leta v leto bolj škodujejo in izpostavljajo različnim zdravstvenim zapletom.

 

Študij o ketaminu je dovolj, ker ga uporablja medicina.

Študij o stimulansih nekoliko manj oz. odvisno za katere stimulanse gre.

Dovolj jih je npr. o kokainu, metamfetaminu, nekaj o amfetaminu, efedrinu, kofeinu... o RC stimulansih jih ni oz. so zelo redke in večinoma z zaključkom, da so premalo raziskani.

 

Se pa veliko dogaja na področju raziskav MDMA, LSD ter psilocibina (MAPS)

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kot sm povedal že večkrat, sm tudi osebno za preregulacijo (dekriminalizacijo) marihuane, sigurno pa ne za 'totalno legalizacijo'.

Če majo nekateri željo po 'totalni legalizaciji ganđe', ne vidm razloga, zakaj nebi legaliziral vseh drog... totalno vseh drog...

 

Nekak logično je, da so pri tej rastlini, enormni zaslužki, zato je tud taka borba kdo bo pokasiral največ... in vrjemi mi, da bo to slej k prej 'big pharma'

 

Na penis mi grejo hašišarji k se derejo, da je trava zdrava in pika... kar seveda ni res.

 

______

 

I'm off... do naslednje študije ;)

 

 

 

bluziš krneki. Nima sploh veze al je zdrava al ne ... nima kej bit regulirana alpa kriminalizirana alpa karkol ... it's a fucking plant k raste povsod, leave it alone, morons!

datura mi raste pred bajto, volčja češnja kjerkol, mušnico utrgam 3 minute stran od doma, vražji goban zgleda skor isto kt najbolj popularna goba pri nas ... a je kej prepovedano?! Mogoče regulirano? Mhm ... reguliral so, kolk lahk na osebo nabereš ... še mal, pa bodo začel prodajat vstopnce za u hosto za gobarje :rolleyes:

 

Ja, ENAKO velja za VSE droge in še marsikaj drucga ... NI razloga za regulacijo in prepovedovanje ... to so vse ena kontrolfrik jajca, ki nimajo nobene veze z real lajfom ter posledično povzročajo predvsem probleme, namesto rešitev, ki naj bi jih.

 

Kaj pa, če je res trava zdrava? Kaj pa, če je res bolj zdrava kot marsikaj kar kupiš v vsaki štacuni? Kaj pa, če je vse res, kar se derejo hašišarji? Ah kjeee ... hašišarji nimajo pojma, dejmo rajš farmacevte vprašat kaj pravjo. Čaki ... :think: ... a to tiste farmacevte, čez kere maš tolk za povedat v temah o cepivih? ;)

 

 

prebol že, da ti trava ne sede in nehi bit neko osebno vojno proti hašišarjem. Mogoč lahk kerga clo kdaj poslušaš kakšno reč ... marsikdo od "njih" je že marsikaj sprobu u lajfu in ma marsikako izkušnjo, ki bi mogoč tut teb koristla. Ni vse sam farmacija in "lesen sie die packungsbeilage" ... :)

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Ravno tako predstavlja pretirano kajenje marihuane, velik problem, predvsem pri mladih (najstniki)

Sigurno pa vsi sami vedo, da si s kajenjem iz leta v leto bolj škodujejo in izpostavljajo različnim zdravstvenim zapletom.

 

Kakšen velik problem? Kolk ljudi poznaš, ki so v svojih najstniških letih praktično bili 24/7 pod vplivom, ne samo z vsebnostjo thc v scavnici in majo točno zarad tega uničeno življenje?

Kolk jih poznaš, ki so počel to isto in čist normalno furajo lajf? Kolk jih pa poznaš, k so si lajf uničl z rečmi, ki so prosto dostopne v redni prodaji?

 

Kakšnim zdravstvenim zapletom so izpostavljeni hašišarji? Predvsem me zanimajo tisti zdravstveni zapleti, ki jih dobiš izključno zaradi kajenja trave? (Pust ob strani zaplete zarad mešanja cigaret v žint ... to je ločena zgodba od trave in jo gre pripisat lokalni "kulturi" uživanja MJ. Nemci, recimo, mešanja z tobakom ne poznajo. Pa še keri drugi tut ne.) Kakšnim zdravstvenim zapletom pa je izpostavljen homo sapiens zaradi 90%+ stvari, ki jih lahko kupi kdorkoli v prvi trgovini?

A štekaš?

Tvoja agenda o "izobraževanju mladih" je že fajn ... način, kako se to greš, je pa mal faljen in veliko tistih, katerim je tvoje "izobraževanje" namenjeno, tvojih umotvorov niti ne prebere več, ker so napisani hejtersko in pod črto torej dosegajo kontra efekt od željenega. Think about it.

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dejmo rajš farmacevte vprašat kaj pravjo.

 

V Italiji jo bo gojila vojska... tko, da bo najboljš če še njih vprašamo... kaj pravjo

 

To grow cheap marijuana, Italy calls in the army

Italy legalized marijuana for medical use last year, but the high cost of buying legal pot in a pharmacy meant few people signed up. Now, the government has found a solution: get the army to grow it.

Starting next year, a high-security lab in a military compound in Florence will grow cannabis for Italy's health care system in an experiment the government says could bring safe, legal and affordable marijuana to suffering patients.

 

________________

 

Če bi zbolel za kako hudo bolezen (Ca, MS, Mb. Chron, Epilepsija, Glaucoma, kronična bolečina, RA ...), za katero študije vedno bolj namigujejo, da naj bi kanabinoidi pomagal predvsem za blaženje simptomov, bi se sigurno poslužu kanabinoidov.

kombo CBD+ CBN ali THC, ki ni psihoaktiven

Inhaliral bi samo z uporabo uparjevalnika.

 

;)

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Kakšen velik problem? Kolk ljudi poznaš, ki so v svojih najstniških letih praktično bili 24/7 pod vplivom, ne samo z vsebnostjo thc v scavnici in majo točno zarad tega uničeno življenje?

Kolk jih poznaš, ki so počel to isto in čist normalno furajo lajf? Kolk jih pa poznaš, k so si lajf uničl z rečmi, ki so prosto dostopne v redni prodaji?

 

 

v 10 letih psihiatrije, sem nehal štet najstnike, ki so postal psihotični, meddrugim v povezavi s kajenjem marihuane... kjub nasvetom psihiatrov, niso prekinl s kajenjem ganđe in še kot najstniki postal shizofreniki.

V povezavi z drugim drogam tega ni blo... ble so samo prehodne, kratke psihoze povezane z ekscesnim uživanjem stimulansov ter razne oblike depresije in nevrotske motnje (panično-fobične, anksiozne, OCD).

 

Se strinjam, da nekateri normalno furajo lajf oz. so normalno sfural lajf, kljub rednem, zmernem uživanju marihuane in njenih derivatov... je pa ponavadi pogoj, da majo take službe, kjer jih ne preverjajo na PAS in da ne upravljajo vozil.

Ob pretirani vsakodnevni uporabi je mel še vsak probleme (afaik)

vsi prjatli hašišarji so si vsaj enkrat v življenju rekl, da bodo nehal... zakaj? a zato k zjutrej preveč kašlate?

 

Velik več ljudi si je življenje uničlo npr. z alkoholom... se strinjam ;)

 

Za zdr. zaplete se ne bom ponavljal... beri raziskave o marihuani v tem topiku :P

 

_________

 

Hejtersko? osebno nimam namena hejtat.

Sam če greš na bilokatero hašišarsko stran, bodo brez argumentov negiral negativne zdravstvene zaplete ob uživanju marihuane.

Tud to, da so ble dokazane smrti, direktno v povezavi z marihuano :P (link/študijo najdeš v tem topiku)

 

Lep dan želim :)

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v 10 letih psihiatrije, sem nehal štet najstnike, ki so postal psihotični, meddrugim v povezavi s kajenjem marihuane... kjub nasvetom psihiatrov, niso prekinl s kajenjem ganđe in še kot najstniki postal shizofreniki.

 

Ajde, ugibejva ... 10 let, kolk je cifra ... 100? 1000? 10.000? 100.000?

Pa djva še pojasnit, kaj pomeni "meddrugim v povezavi s"? A to pomen, da je primerek s težavo pač kadil TUDI travo, poleg verjetno popolnoma urejenim življenskim razmeram doma in poleg celotne palete ostalih psihoaktivnih in tudi zastrupljivih substanc? Al to pomen, da so kadil izključno travo pa mel u lajfu vse pošlihtano u nulo, ljubečo familijo, topel dom in poln želodček, pa jih je vseen zjebalo in so postal shizo? Za kolk od teh, katere si nehu štet, si prepričan, da je mela bistveno vlogo pri njihovih težavah ganja? :)

Ob pretirani vsakodnevni uporabi je mel še vsak probleme (afaik)

 

Kakšne probleme? Pazi ... povezani IZKLJUČNO z pretirano rabo marihuane. Ne zdej o primerih, kjer je poleg MJ prisotno še xyz ostalega. :)

vsi prjatli hašišarji so si vsaj enkrat v življenju rekl, da bodo nehal... zakaj? a zato k zjutrej preveč kašlate?

 

kolk prijatlov je že vsaj enkrat u življenju reklo, da bodo nehal jest tolk cukra, da bodo jedl manj svinjarije na splošno, da bodo začel športat, da bodo manj pili alkohol, da bodo fural bolj easy life z manj stresa, da bodo gledal manj televizijskih nadaljevank, da se bodo odklopl od fejsbuka once and for all, da bodo xyz?! Get it? ;)

vrjetn zato, ker po čokolad preveč kašlajo. ;)

Za zdr. zaplete se ne bom ponavljal... beri raziskave o marihuani v tem topiku :P

 

a to take raziskave kot so te, o katerih pišejo tukaj? :P

Hejtersko? osebno nimam namena hejtat.

Sam če greš na bilokatero hašišarsko stran, bodo brez argumentov negiral negativne zdravstvene zaplete ob uživanju marihuane.

Tud to, da so ble dokazane smrti, direktno v povezavi z marihuano :P (link/študijo najdeš v tem topiku)

 

Tvoj namen je postranskega pomena, žal ... rezultat je tak, da daš filing, da ornk hejtaš.
Sam nimam občutka o tem, da hašišarji popolnoma nekritično razlagajo o tem, da je ganja samo zdrava in nima stranskih učinkov ... je mogoče, da ti vidiš samo to, ker to iščeš, da potem lahko sam pri sebi upravičiš hejtanje?

Tisto o dokazani smrti ... mhm ... znanstveno dokazano. Dej no ... sta mela lepo debato z tehnologom, pa si kr preskoču vse skup in še vedno trdiš, da je dokazana smrt direktno v povezavi z MJ? Neprimerno.


Jp, lep dan je. ;)

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sej jo lahko gojiš v SLO.

There was a proposal of 2012 that would decriminalise medical cannabis,[115] failed with not enough support. The petition for support for medical marijuana decriminalisation for was re-proposed in 2013,[116] succeded in gaining enough public support for legal cannabis, but the Slovenian goverment rather re-classified cannabis from Class B to Class A illegal drugs, designated fines for small quantity possetion and declared it "decriminalisation" of medical marijuana in 2014.[117]

 

Cannabis cultivation is not illegal for cannabis growers, growing weed with ≤ 0.2 % THC on a ≤ 0.1 ha surface, or ≥ 0.1 ha surface with a govermental permit for cannabis cultivation.[114]

 

VIR :bravo::happyrorly:

 

šalo na stran... osebno sm mnenja, da bi blo treba dekriminalizirat gojenje za osebno uporabo npr. kot majo v Kanadi:

1 or more plants per person per household) unless in possession of a government issued licence to grow for medical purposes

 

____________________

Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey

In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i.

 

 

The response rate was 94%.

Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively.

Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain.

Average pain improvement on a 0–10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain.

 

Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai‘i. No serious adverse effects were reported.

 

These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

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obetavno :)

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Orly:

 

manj kot 100.

Takrat noben ni delal študij, če je lahko izključno kajenje trave, triger za psihozo oz. nadalje za sch.. Osebno sem mnenja, da je trava samo eden izmed trigerjev.

Pri nekaj od pacientih sem prepričan, da v kolikor bi prenehal s kajenjm trave, jih to nebi vodilo v sch...

 

amotivacijski sindrom, pri pretirani uporabi marihuane in njenih derivatov, če ne druzga :P

Se strinjam s tvojo trditvijo glede ostalih slabih razvad.

 

Nisem anti-vaccer. Zagovarjam samo to, da naj cepiva ustrezno preverijo, preden jih prodajo... sam veš, da je ogromno afer (ki niso teorije zarote)

 

http://www.drogart.org/forum/index.php?showtopic=930607&p=1673031 (glede smrtnih primerov beri od tu dalje)

Cannabis can kill without the influence of other drugs

 

:lubckanaroko: grem zdej drevesa objemat... da se mal sprostim

Edited by drogfart
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A cannabis-based drug is showing 'promise' in children with severe epilepsy Epidiolex, made from cannabis extract cannabidiol, has reduced seizure frequency by half in children with Dravet Syndrome

Epidiolex is made from cannabidiol, an extract from the cannabis plant, and is currently only being tested in American children. But it will soon be given to hundreds of children across the US and Europe - including patients at London's Great Ormond Street Hospital - when GW Pharmaceuticals begins formal clinical trials in the coming weeks.

 

video

____________

 

http://www.gwpharm.com/Epidiolex.aspx

 

http://fox13now.com/2014/06/30/cannabis-oil-available-to-epileptic-children-for-treatment-starting-july-1/comment-page-1/

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Cannabis: Highlights from Global Drug Survey 2014

Dr Adam Winstock presents key findings and global comparisons from the 2014 Global Drug Survey, which had over 78,000 participants from around the world.

In this brief presentation, Dr Winstock talks about "the Perfect Stone" - what cannabis users would like, and discusses how less THC and more CBD can result in a drug high with more pleasurable effects, and less negative effects.

 

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Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

 

Cannabinoids are known to have analgesic properties. We evaluated the effect of oro-mucosal sativex, (THC: CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, on pain and allodynia, in 125 patients with neuropathic pain of peripheral origin in a five-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Patients remained on their existing stable analgesia. A self-titrating regimen was used to optimise drug administration. Sixty-three patients were randomised to receive sativex and 62 placebo. The mean reduction in pain intensity scores (primary outcome measure) was greater in patients receiving sativex than placebo (mean adjusted scores -1.48 points vs. -0.52 points on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (p=0.004; 95% CI: -1.59, -0.32). Improvements in Neuropathic Pain Scale composite score (p=0.007), sleep NRS (p=0.001), dynamic allodynia (p=0.042), punctate allodynia (p=0.021), Pain Disability Index (p=0.003) and Patient's Global Impression of Change (p

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17997224

 

Razlika med mojim in drogfartovim linkom je v tem, da moj vodi na stran uradne inštitucije :bravo: , medtem ko drogfart linka na stran hekerske organizacije. :debil:

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Razlika med mojim in drogfartovim linkom je v tem, da moj vodi na stran uradne inštitucije , medtem ko drogfart linka na stran hekerske organizacije.

 

naa

 

razlika je ta, da si ti popnu študijo iz leta 2007, ki omenja neuropatsko bolečino

 

Jest pa 2014 raziskavo glede blažanja bolečin pri bolnikih z rakom katere sponzor je bil GW pharmaceuticals ltd.

 

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01361607

http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/trials/a-trial-sativex-for-cancer-related-pain-gwca0962

 

____________

 

osnove:

http://projects.hsl.wisc.edu/GME/PainManagement/session2.4.html

 

_____

 

iz mojih izkušenj:

za nevropatsko bolečino se trenutno največ predpisuje Lyrica

Pri bolnikih z rakom še vedno opioide in opijate

______________

 

Če želiš, se lahko pozanimam glede čtiva o bolečini oz. mehanizmu bolečine.

Zame je to totalno prezahtevna tema, kolkr vem ima bolečino na Gorenjskem načez samo 1 zdravnica, ona bo tud najbolj vedla stvari okrog Sativex. Jo tud lahko vprašam

Edited by drogfart
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Further evidence that cannabis reduces tumor growth in new study

he main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis - tetrahydrocannabinol - could be used to reduce tumor growth in cancer patients, according to an international research team. Previous studies have suggested that cannabinoids, of which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one, have anti-cancer properties. In 2009, researchers at Complutense University in Spain found that THC induced the death of brain cancer cells in a process known as "autophagy."

The researchers found that administering THC to mice with human tumors initiated autophagy and caused the growth of the tumors to decrease. Two human patients with highly aggressive brain tumors who received intracranial administration of THC also showed similar signs of autophagy, upon analysis. The team behind the new study - co-led by Complutense University and the University of Anglia (UEA) in the UK - claims to have discovered previously unknown "signaling platforms" that allow THC to shrink tumors. The researchers induced tumors in mice using samples of human breast cancer cells. When the tumors were targeted with doses of THC, the researchers found that two cell receptors were particularly associated with an anti-tumor response.

 

"THC, the major active component of marijuana, has anti-cancer properties. This compound is known to act through a specific family of cell receptors called cannabinoid receptors," says Dr. Peter McCormick, from UEA's School of Pharmacy.

 

"We show that these effects are mediated via the joint interaction of CB2 and GPR55 - two members of the cannabinoid receptor family. Our findings help explain some of the well-known but still poorly understood effects of THC at low and high doses on tumor growth."

 

However, the team is unsure which receptor is the most responsible for the anti-tumor effects. Dr. McCormick says that there has been a "great deal of interest" in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind how marijuana influences cancer pathology. This has been accompanied by a drive in the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize a medical version of the drug that retains the anti-cancer properties.

 

"By identifying the receptors involved we have provided an important step towards the future development of therapeutics that can take advantage of the interactions we have discovered to reduce tumor growth," says Dr. McCormick.

 

Medical marijuana has been in the news a lot over the past week, with Governor Andrew Cuomo signing the Compassionate Care Act, which makes New York the 23rd state to legalize the medical use of this drug. Medical News Today also recently reported on how the city of Berkeley in California - which was the first state in the US to allow the medical use of marijuana, back in 1996 - has passed a law that requires the four marijuana dispensaries in the city to provide free medical marijuana to low-income patients who are prescribed this medication.

 

Meanwhile, Arizona have broadened the range of conditions for which medical marijuana can be prescribed as a treatment. As well as conditions such as cancer, chronic pain and muscle spasms, marijuana can now be prescribed as a form of palliative care for post-traumatic stress disorder.

 

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/279571.php

Edited by technolog
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Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

pojavla se je ta študija in mediji so pograbl:

Weed is 114 times less deadly than alcohol, study finds

 

nekdo ni prebral vsaj tega:

 

The first major problem of the approach is the lack of toxicological dose-response data for all compounds except alcohol and tobacco.

No human dose-response data are available; also no dose-response data in animals, only LD50 values are published.

 

Furthermore, no chronic-toxicity data (long-term experiments) are available, which are usually used for such kinds of risk assessment.

 

Therefore, we can assess only in regards to mortality but not carcinogenicity or other long-term effects.

 

The absence of such data is specifically relevant for compounds with low acute toxicity (such as cannabis), the risk of which may therefore be underestimated.

 

 

 

Additionally, the available toxicological thresholds (i.e. LD50 values) have considerable uncertainty (for example, more than a factor of 10 for diazepam in different species).

 

However it has been previously shown that the animal LD50 is closely related to fatal drug toxicity in humans60. The sensitivity analysis based on human data for ethanol shows that the average MOE result is similar to the result based on animal LD50.

Our results for ethanol are also consistent with previous MOE studies of ethanol20,21.

 

For cannabis and nicotine, the discrepancy in the sensitivity analysis can be explained in the chosen endpoints (no dose response data on mortality in humans were identifiable in the literature).

For example, the only available human toxicological endpoint for cannabis as chosen by EFSA55 was “psychotropic effects”. The rationale for choosing this endpoint was the exclusion of risk for the inadvertent and indirect ingestion of THC when hemp products are used as animal feed55.

 

We were unable to identify dose-response information for other endpoints of cannabis (e.g. mental health problems, chronic risk, or other cannabis-constituents besides THC).

 

We think that while it is clear that different endpoints may yield quite different results, the human MOE for cannabis based on the endpoint “psychotropic effects” can be seen as general validation of the MOE concept, because the resulting values below 1 are expected as the psychotropic effect is the desired endpoint (and hence the psychotropic threshold dose is exceeded by drug users).

 

 

The second major problem is the uncertainty in data about individual and population-wide exposure due to the illegal markets.

 

There is a scarcity of epidemiological studies of cannabis use by comparison with epidemiological studies of alcohol and tobacco use61.

 

If population data are available, they are usually provided as “% prevalence”, but for risk assessment we need a population-wide per-capita dosage in “mg compound/person/day”.

 

 

Our approach contains some further limitations:

Drug interactions cannot be taken into account as we just do not have any toxicological data on such effects (e.g. by co-administration in animals).

However, polydrug use in humans is common, especially of illicit drugs with ethanol or benzodiazepines63. Addiction potential and risk of use (e.g. unclean syringes leading to increased infection risk) are also not considered by the model, because adequate dose-response data could not be identified for these endpoints.

 

 

 

Aside from the limitations in data, our results should be treated carefully particularly in regard to dissemination to lay people.

For example, tabloids have reported that “alcohol is worse than hard drugs” following the publication of previous drug rankings.

 

Such statements taken out of context may be misinterpreted, especially considering the differences of risks between individual and the whole population.

 

 

A main finding of our study is the qualitative validation of previous expert-based approaches on drug-ranking (e.g. Nutt et al.9), especially in regard to the positions of alcohol (highest) and cannabis (lowest).

 

Currently, the MOE results must be treated as preliminary due to the high uncertainty in data.

The analyses may be refined when better dose-response data and exposure estimates become available.

As the problem is multidimensional15, it would also make sense to establish some form of harm or risk matrix64 that may be more suitable than a single indicator.

 

Our MOE could be one piece in the puzzle that constitutes to the establishment of a “holistic drug risk”.

Currently, the MOE results point to risk management prioritization towards alcohol and tobacco rather than illicit drugs.

The high MOE values of cannabis, which are in a low-risk range, suggest a strict legal regulatory approach rather than the current prohibition approach.

 

Pa še ena zanimivost v tabeli 1.

 

THC LD50 ni kaj prida manjši od MDMA LD50

 

THC LD50 za miši 482mg/kg, 666 za podgane

MDMA LD50 325mgmg/kg za podgane

 

TOXICITY TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL: TOXICITY DATA: 666 MG/KG ORAL-RAT LD50; 482 MG/KG ORAL-MOUSE LD50; 525 MG/KG   ORAL-DOG LDLO; 29 MG/KG INTRAVENOUS-RAT LD50; 42 MG/KG INTRAVENOUS-MOUSE   LD50; 128 MG/KG INTRAVENOUS-MONKEY LDLO; 373 MG/KG INTRAPERITONEAL-RAT   LD50; 168 MG/KG INTRAPERITONEAL-MOUSE LD50
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Rats can't get drunk after a dose of oxytocin hormone

 

"As exciting as it is to think this new application of oxytocin might allow people to have a few too many drinks at their lunchtime meeting and come back and be more productive in the afternoon, the significance does extend far beyond that," says Bowen. The real promise of the finding is in treating alcohol-use disorders, he says. "While you might think that a drug that makes you feel less intoxicated might make you drink more, the opposite seems to be the case with oxytocin."

 

Bowen plans to investigate this use of oxytocin in humans soon, but because it is such a large molecule, it may be hard to get enough of it through the blood-brain barrier. However, he says that by finding which part of oxytocin binds to the GABA receptors, it should be possible to design smaller chemicals to do the same job.

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The Science Behind Anti-Depressants May Be Completely 'Backwards'

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763415000287

 

zelo vredu članek in raziskava.

končno nek znanstvenik javno okrca SSRi

 

Zaključek:

What do you think is the future of depression treatment?

As people and physicians become more aware that antidepressants only work for a limited period of time, and are less safe than they have been supposed, the use of antidepressant medications will decline and the use of psychotherapies will increase.

 

I would suggest that the attempt to pharmacologically reduce depressive symptoms is not likely to produce lasting effects.

You can get these temporary effects, but they're not likely to be lasting effects, and they can cause a whole lot of problems.

 

Psychotherapy is more likely to produce lasting effects, and can help people cope with the things that actually triggered their depressive episodes, and that's why these therapies are more productive in the long run.

Edited by drogfart
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Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use

 

 

Abstract

An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases.

 

However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users.

Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia.

 

After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use.

 

Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH.

In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days

Oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit.

Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use.

 

The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered.

Edited by drogfart
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Tobacco smoking and all-cause mortality in a large Australian cohort study: findings from a mature epidemic with current low smoking prevalence

 

This is a prospective study of 204,953 individuals aged ≥45 years sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia, who joined the 45 and Up Study from 2006–2009, with linked questionnaire, hospitalisation, and mortality data to mid-2012 and with no history of cancer (other than melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer), heart disease, stroke, or thrombosis.

Hazard ratios (described here as relative risks, RRs) for all-cause mortality among current and past smokers compared to never-smokers were estimated, adjusting for age, education, income, region of residence, alcohol, and body mass index.

 

____________

 

Conclusions

A study of 200,000 people in Australia – smokers and non-smokers over the age of 45 – has found that more people die from smoking tobacco than previously thought.

It was believed that around half of long-term smokers are killed by smoking-related illnesses such as cancer and heart disease but the figure now stands at around 67%.

 

Smoking 10 cigarettes a day doubled the risk of an earlier death and a 20-a-day habit would increase the threat by four or five times

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http://www.annallergy.org/action/showMultipleAbstracts

 

Scientists have discovered cannabis is an allergen.

A new study published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology says cannabis, like other pollen-bearing plants, can provoke allergic reactions.

 

The research, led by Dr Thad Ocampo, concluded that while episodes of cannabis allergies were “relatively uncommon”, they had been “reported with increased” frequency.

 

They say marijuana use has led to symptoms including hay fever, conjunctivitis, asthma and even anaphylaxis.

 

Because cannabis is still mostly illegal in the US, there are no concrete figures on how common allergies are.

 

“Much research is still needed to more definitively define pertinent allergens, develop a standardised extract, establish diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and clarify treatment options for clinically affected Cannabis-allergic patients,” the study concludes.

 

:bravo:

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http://www.annallergy.org/action/showMultipleAbstracts

 

Scientists have discovered cannabis is an allergen.

A new study published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology says cannabis, like other pollen-bearing plants, can provoke allergic reactions.

 

The research, led by Dr Thad Ocampo, concluded that while episodes of cannabis allergies were “relatively uncommon”, they had been “reported with increased” frequency.

 

They say marijuana use has led to symptoms including hay fever, conjunctivitis, asthma and even anaphylaxis.

 

Because cannabis is still mostly illegal in the US, there are no concrete figures on how common allergies are.

 

“Much research is still needed to more definitively define pertinent allergens, develop a standardised extract, establish diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and clarify treatment options for clinically affected Cannabis-allergic patients,” the study concludes.

 

:bravo:

 

Problem torej predstavlja industrijska konoplja, kjer rastejo tudi moške rastline, ki proizvajajo cvetni prah in ne indijska konoplja, namenjena rekreativnem uživanju ali uživanju v medicinske namene, kjer se moške rastline odstrani še preden začnejo proizvajati cvetni prah. Ženske rastline pa tekom celotnega življenja ne ustvarjajo cvetnega prahu.

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Problem torej predstavlja industrijska konoplja, kjer rastejo tudi moške rastline, ki proizvajajo cvetni prah in ne indijska konoplja, namenjena rekreativnem uživanju ali uživanju v medicinske namene, kjer se moške rastline odstrani še preden začnejo proizvajati cvetni prah. Ženske rastline pa tekom celotnega življenja ne ustvarjajo cvetnega prahu.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol

 

V medicinske namene naj bi se uporabljal predvsem CBD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol#Industrial_hemp

 

torej je v igri tudi industrijska konoplja.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol

 

V medicinske namene naj bi se uporabljal predvsem CBD

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol#Industrial_hemp

 

torej je v igri tudi industrijska konoplja.

 

Wrong! V medicinske namene se ne uporablja samo CBD, temveč tudi drugi kanabinoidi. In CBD proizvajajo (tako kot tudi THC) predvsem ženske rastline.

 

Dodajam pa še linke glede uspešnega zdravljenja astme s konopljo (v tem primeru gre za kanabinoid THC):

http://www.leafscience.com/2014/02/04/study-explains-marijuana-isnt-bad-asthma/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1099949

Edited by technolog
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